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Posts Tagged ‘tokugawa hidetada’

What does Hatsudai mean?

In Japanese History on April 14, 2020 at 9:23 pm

初台
Hatsudai (the first platform)

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Is it Back to Normal Yet?

Well, apparently things aren’t back to normal yet. The Wuhan Love™️ is still out there taking lives, eroding infrastructure, and killing jobs. We’ve just got a few more weeks to put up with this and if we all do our best, I’m pretty sure we’ll come out of this stronger. That said, I hope you’re all doing well, staying inside, socially distancing yourselves, and discovering ever weirder shit on Pornhub[i]. It looks like the worldwide death toll is over 120,000 people at the time of writing. The global death toll isn’t slowing down because some major first world countries have totally dropped the ball on this one, I’m looking at you Japan and the USA. Get your shit together, please.

Anyhoo, we’re heading back over to 渋谷区 Shibuya-ku Shibuya Ward because the further west you go in 東京都 Tōkyō-to the Tōkyō Metropolis, the easier the place names get. Or, at least, it’s easier for me to find “bite-sized” articles. So today, we’ll be looking at 初台 Hatsudai, which is a neighborhood that lies just off the side of 旧甲州街道 Kyū-Kōshū Kaidō the former Kōshū Highway[ii] at the border of 新宿区 Shinjuku-ku Shinjuku Ward and Shibuya Ward[iii]. Its primarily a residential area, but it’s also home to the corporate headquarters of Casio[iv].

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First, Let’s Look at the Kanji


hatsu, haji-/hajime; sho

beginning, first


tai, –dai

tower; platform; plateau; stand

Even though I like to start each etymology with “let’s look at the kanji,” I’m going to be perfectly honest and tell you that in this case, knowing the kanji isn’t going to give us much insight into this place name.

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a reconstructed noroshi-dai

The Story

Tradition says this place name is a combination of two legends, one from the end of the Muromachi Period and the other from beginning of the Edo Period.

The first derivation says that in order to secure his re-fortification of 江戸城 Edo-jō Edo Castle, the warlord 太田道灌 Ōta Dōkan built a series of eight 出城 dejiro satellite castles[v], including one in this area. Whether this was a full on 砦 toride fortress or just a 見張台 mihari-dai look-out tower, the main feature was its 狼煙台 noroshi-dai a specialized platform for sending smoke signals to the other defenses. One story says that this was originally called 八台 yatsudai fort #8, or hatsudai in the local dialect[vi].

The most trustworthy etymology comes from the beginning of the Edo Period (1600-1868). The second shōgun, 徳川秀忠 Tokugawa Hidetada, donated a large fief in this area to his wet nurse, 初台 Hatsudai. This area was countryside until quite recently, so the presence of a member of the shōgun’s household living on a prominent hill brought a lot of prestige to the village[vii]. We’ve seen plenty of other examples for place names derived from the presence of elite residences.

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We have no portrait of Hatsudai no Tsubone, but here is Saigo no Tsubone. She was the mother of Hidetada and the primary concubine of Ieyasu.

Hatsudai no Tsubone

During the finally years of the Azuchi-Momoyama Period[viii], samurai warlord 徳川家康 Tokugawa Ieyasu needed someone to look after his eldest son, Hidetada[ix]. He moved his clan to Edo in 1590 and immediately began seeking a proper nanny to raise the twelve-year-old in his new castle. The keyword search for “cultured, devoted, and lactating” pointed directly at one noble woman – a woman whose actual name and lineage is a bit mysterious to us today, yet the Tokugawa court deemed her worthy of raising the next head of the clan, and most likely the next leader of the realm.

In 1591, the wife of a certain 土井昌勝 Doi Masakatsu was selected to raise the second Tokugawa family head, Hidetada. Sadly, we don’t know much about her as records merely preserve her as “the wife of Doi Masakatsu” or even more obliquely as “the wife of the younger brother of 土井利勝 Doi Toshikatsu.”[x] We don’t know who her parents were, nor when and where she was born and died. We do know, however, the Buddhist name she retired under in her old age[xi], and the name and title she held in the shōgun’s court: 初台局 Hatsudai no Tsubone Lady Hatsudai.

Long time readers will recognize the term 局 tsubone, a title given to the highest-ranking matrons of 大奥 Ōoku the shōgun’s harem[xii]. Years ago, we spoke about 春日局 Kasuga no Tsubone, the wet nurse of the third shōgun, 徳川家光 Tokugawa Iemitsu. Seeing how the two tsubone we have come across so far were both trusted with the lives of future shōguns, I think it’s pretty clear how loyal and respected these women were. The kanji 局 tusbone/kyoku literally means “bureau” or “department,” so think of them as the Vice-Presidents of Raising the Next Shōgun. All the other ladies in waiting were at their beck and call. Make no mistake about it. Women with the title tsubone ran shit in the innermost palace of Edo Castle.

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Hatsudai in the Edo Period. Just farmland. Notice the wide yellow road roughly following the Tamagawa Aqueduct, that’s the Kōshū Kaido.

Hatsudai – Mystery Woman

While we don’t know much about Hatsudai’s personal life, we do know a bit about the family she married into. The 土井家 Doi-ke Doi clan had been active in 下総国 Shimōsa no Kuni Shimōsa Province[xiii] and it seems like they were a typical Kantō samurai family of the late Sengoku Period. I mentioned that Hatsudai is sometimes described as the “wife of the younger brother of Doi Toshikatsu,” which is interesting for two reasons: one, it means the younger brother, Masakatsu, wasn’t as distinguished as his older brother; and two, it could mean Ieyasu held Toshikatsu in higher esteem than the younger brother.

You see, Toshikatsu was adopted into the clan by Ieyasu’s councilor, 土井利昌 Doi Toshimasa. He is believed to have been the son of 水野信元 Mizuno Nobumoto, an uncle of Tokugawa Ieyasu. Others claim he was an illegitimate son of Ieyasu himself, entrusted to the Doi clan where he could keep an eye on his growth from a safe distance. Ultimately, Toshikatsu proved to be a worthy ally of the Tokugawa. Not only did he and his younger brother serve as advisors, they led their armies in support of 大坂の陣 Ōsaka no Jin the summer and winter sieges of 大阪城 Ōsaka-jō Ōsaka Castle in 1614 and 1615. Toshikatsu was about six or seven years older than Hidetada, and Masakatsu was probably about four or five years older. Hidetada apparently had great trust in Masakatsu (they were roughly the same age) and he retained both brothers as personal advisors during his nearly 20 years as shōgun and his nine years as 大御所 ōgosho retired shōgun. After Hidetada’s death, the Doi brothers slipped into obscurity.

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Hatsudai today. The Keio Line now follows the Tamagawa Aqueduct.

How long Hatsudai remained in the direct service of the Tokugawa is unclear, but at some point, she retired and became a Buddhist priest – choosing a new name, 安養院 An’yō-in. The shōgun Hidetada granted her a luxurious, hilltop retirement estate in the country. It was a quiet little spot surrounded by rice paddies in Yoyogi Village, conveniently located near the Kōshū Highway. The fief was valued at 二百石 ni hyaku koku 200 koku[xiv], which would be a pretty sweet income to retire on. Also, there was supposed to be enough money for Hatsudai to establish a funerary temple in the area, but it’s unclear what happened next.

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Grave of Hatsudai

Final Resting Place?

In present-day 渋谷区代々木三丁目 Shibuya-ku Yoyogi san-chōme 3rd block of Yoyogi, Shibuya Ward, there’s a small temple called 正春寺 Shōshun-ji Shōshun Temple. It appears that for whatever reason, Hatsudai no Tsubone didn’t establish a temple in her own name. Her daughter, known to history as 梅園局 Umezono no Tsubone[xv], was the original wet nurse in charge of the future third shōgun, Iemtisu. I’m not sure why[xvi], but Umezono no Tsubone was soon replaced by Kasuga no Tsubone — probably the only tsubone most people have ever heard of. What we do know is that in retirement[xvii], she changed her name to the more priestly sounding 正春院 Shōshun-in, hence the name of the temple.

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Hatsudai’s Buddhist name, An’yo-in

If you walk around the cemetery and look really hard, you can find a grave dedicated to a certain 土井次郎左衛門昌勝 Doi Jirōzaemon Masakatsu. We can quickly identify this as Hatsudai’s husband’s tomb[xviii]. If we take a look at a small column of text to the side, we can clearly see the phrase: 土井次郎左衛門昌勝室 Doi Jirōzaemon Masakatsu no shitsu[xix]. This inscription indicates that the 夫婦 fūfu married couple can be honored here together for eternity, and just in case people forgot about poor old Hatsudai, only her Buddhist name (An’yō-in) and her relation to Masakatsu are listed on the grave. The priests of Shōshun-ji say that fires, earthquakes, and the Firebombing of Tōkyō destroyed most temple records, but oral tradition tells that the temple was established by Umezono no Tsubone (Shōshun-in), although maybe her mother Hatsudai no Tsubone (An’yō-in) established something smaller in the area that was absorbed by the current institution. Legend says that in the Edo Period, many local people made pilgrimages here to leave offerings for the wet nurse of the second shōgun, and prayed for their sons to be virtuous and decisive clan leaders. However, the temple cannot confirm whether the actual remains of Doi Masakatsu or — more importantly — those of Hatsudai are interred under that gravestone in their cemetery.

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Hatsudai Awa O-dori 

So, despite Ōta Dōkan having an outpost here, Hatsudai is probably named after Hatsudai no Tsubone’s retirement estate on the hill. The fact that a temple in walking distance has a connection to our woman of mystery bolsters this theory. More importantly, if “name a tsubone other than Kasuga no Tsubone” ever comes up in a drinking game, you’ve got this one covered, bruh. Don’t say I never gave you anything.

On that note, stay safe. Stay home. Leave a comment here or on the Facebook Group and and the Facebook Community. And I’ll see you soon!

Further Reading:

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Explore Edo-Tōkyō With Me Japan This Guided Tours
(It’s not for tourists, it’s for history nerds!)

 


[i] Yo, I’m discovering so many fetishes that once this social distancing bullshit is finished, I’m planning on fucking my way to an early grave. Riddled with STD’s doesn’t sound like a bad way to go when a version of the flu is gutting the world economy and killing people left and right. It really puts the impermanence of life under the microscope, if you know what I mean #TeamIenari
[ii] This stretch is known locally as 甲州道中 Kōshū Dōchū the Kōshū Promenade – sounds so pleasant.
[iii] Whether you’re in Shibuya or Shinjuku, I think it’s fair to call this area 代々木 Yoyogi as just a general term.
[iv] So, if you’re into that sort of thing…
[v] Also described as 砦 toride a fort. Also, who was the fuck was Ōta Dōkan?
[vi] I only found one person citing this “platform #8” etymology, so I don’t have a lot of faith in it. I think the 台 dai kanji reinforces a sense of historical continuity from the name 初台 Hatsudai, but the name is probably from the Edo Period, not Ōta Dōkan’s time. Any relationship between the two stories is probably just a coincidence.
[vii] Present day Hatsudai lies on the south side of the Kōshū Kaidō. This used to be 代々木村 Yoyogi Mura Yoyogi Village. The north side of the Kōshū Kaidō (not present day Hatsudai) was 幡ヶ谷村 Hatagaya Mura Hatagaya Village the (present day Hatagaya).
[viii] The last years of the Sengoku Period (Warring States Period), which saw the rise of the so-called Three Great Unifiers.
[ix] Actually, now Hidetada was the eldest. Ieyasu’s true first-born son was 信康 Nobuyasu who committed 切腹 seppuku ritual suicide at age 20 in 1579.
[x] Toshikatsu was a general closely aligned with the Tokugawa.
[xi] We’ll get to her Buddhist name in due time. But just remember, that noble women were expected to become monks when their husbands retired or died. Often they would found a temple which took their priestly name.
[xii] The Ōoku wasn’t officially created until the time of Kasuga no Tsubone, but the women’s quarters (the innermost palace in Edo Castle) was already a de facto division of castle life in its own right since day one.
[xiii] Present day 千葉県 Chiba-ken Chiba Prefecture.
[xiv] One koku = enough rice to feed an adult male for one year.
[xv] Actually, I’m not sure how to read her name. I’m 90% sure it’s Umezono (a Japanese reading, more suitable for a name) or Umeon (another rarer, Japanese variant). It could also be Baien (a Chinese reading, but this seems more literary or topographical).
[xvi] Perhaps Umezono no Tsubone died young, while her mother was still alive?
[xvii] Unless, of course, she died prematurely and received the name Shōshun-in posthumously…?
[xviii] For everyone who’s smoking too much herb or drinking too much booze during the Wuhan Love™️ Pandemic and you already forgot, Hatsudai was married to Doi Masakatsu. All that Jirōzaemon nonsense is just some dumb Edo Period name-game bullshit. Don’t sweat it.
[xix] 室 shitsu literally means “room.” This was a term applied to the wives of the most elite warriors. A general way to think of this is 正室 seishitsu main room (ie; lawful wife) and 側室 sokushitsu side room (ie; formal concubine).

What does Shinanomachi mean?

In Japanese History on May 12, 2015 at 5:42 pm

信濃町
Shinanomachi (Shinano Town)

station

Today’s place name is really easy, so I thought I’d take a little time to review some ideas that pop up from time to time. Hopefully this is a good refresher for long time readers and a way to bring new readers up to speed.

I’m constantly referring to a variety of administrative units and geographical areas, most commonly: 国 kuni provinces, 藩 han domains, 郡 gun districts, 村 mura villages, and 町 machi towns. The meanings of these terms changed over time. Since JapanThis! tends to focus on 江戸東京 Edo-Tōkyō, the last term 町 machi generally referred to tightly controlled towns made up of commoners or low ranking samurai that centered around a specific trade or activity. 郡 gun districts and 村 mura villages were more loosely defined and referred to larger areas with a less cohesive concentration of residences – districts being much, much larger than villages, naturally[i]. The first two terms, 国 kuni and 藩 han are a bit more specialized.


kuni, koku
province


han
domain

令制国 ryōsei koku administrative provinces (also called 律令国 ritsuryō koku) were established sometime between 645 and 701. This is the birth of the “province.”

During the Muromachi Period, the large provincial territories came to be superseded by the protectorates of 守護大名 shugo daimyō (for lack of a better translation, “military governors/protectors of specific fiefs”).

By the time of 豊臣秀吉 Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the ancient provinces were merely archaic boundaries on the map. Actual political authority was held by daimyō over their lands, ancestral or recently acquired. This situation continued through the Edo Period – the real power being controlled by local daimyō whose fiefs were now called 藩 han domains.

After the rise of the han system, the provinces existed as geographical borders – but not political borders – until 1871 when the imperial edict 廃藩置県 haihan-chiken was promulgated. The name means “abolition of domains, establishment of prefectures.” [ii]

Today provincial names are used as nostalgic nicknames.

国司
kokushi, kuni no tsukasa
provincial governors

Governor is a somewhat weak translation, but it’s good enough for our purposes. But in short, with the establishment of provinces, kokushi were the officials granted control the provinces. The position weakened in the Kamakura and Marumachi Periods.

Kokushi titles came in 4 flavors. They consisted of a province name plus a rank. From highest to lowest, those ranks were 守 kami protector, 介 suke caretaker, 掾 jō officer, 目 sakan overseer[iii]. (The translations of those kanji are my own and just meant to give my non-kanji reading readers a general idea.)

As the geopolitical importance of provinces faded away, kokushi titles became mere courtly titles. In the Edo Period, these archaic titles were prestigious in the courts of the shōgun and emperor, but the people bearing the titles wielded no power over the territory. It was strictly a formality.

So why did I bother going through all of that? Well, as I said before, it never hurts to review a few important concepts. Also, there are new readers joining all the time and I want to make sure they’re all onboard. And lastly, the concept of 国司 kokushi is important to this place name.

信濃国 Shinano no Kuni[iv] Shinano Province was located inside present day 長野県 Nagano-ken Nagano Prefecture. The name of 信濃町 Shinanomachi is derived from this place name and is connected with the kokushi title 信濃守 Shinano no Kami Protector of Shinano.

Shinanomachi is located in Shinjuku Ward.

Shinanomachi is located in Shinjuku Ward.
“Why have I never heard of this place?” you’re probably asking yourself.
Simple, no one fucking lives there. As of 2010, the area claimed to house a mere 979 residents!!

.

So, Whose Title Was This?

永井尚政 Nagai Naomasa was a daimyō who was active at the dawn of the Edo Period. He was born in 1587; the same year 豊臣秀吉 Toyotomi Hideyoshi began expelling Christians from Japan. His father, 永井直勝 Nagai Naokatsu, was a retainer of 徳川家康 Tokugawa Ieyasu. As such Naomasa was along for the ride at many of the major events that catapulted Ieyasu to the position of shōgun – ie; the military campaigns that defined both the beginning of the shōgunate and the end of the Sengoku Period.

In 1600, at the ripe old age of 13, Naomasa is believed to have accompanied his father Naokatsu to the 関ケ原の戦い Sekigahara no Tatakai Battle of Sekigahara. In 1602, he became an attendant of 徳川秀忠 Tokugawa Hidetada, who would soon become the 2nd shōgun. Needless to say, this was an extremely prestigious position for a boy of his age.

A famous screen depicting the Battle of Sekigahara. I actually recently saw the real thing at the Great Sekigahara Exhibit at the Edo-Tokyo Museum. It was pretty freaking impressive.

In 1605, the newly installed 2nd shōgun, Hidetada, granted him the honorary title 信濃守 Shinano no Kami. Having received this title directly from the shōgun, this new name became far more well-known than his real name. However, his new status within the shōgunate ranks came with responsibilities and so from winter 1614 to spring 1615, he fought alongside the retired shōgun Ieyasu and shōgun Hidetada at the 大坂の陣 Ōsaka no Jin Siege of Ōsaka. Years later, the 3rd shōgun, Tokugawa Iemitsu sent him to protect the imperial city of 京都 Kyōto during the 島原の乱 Shimabara no Ran Shimabara Rebellion from winter 1637 to spring 1638[v]. These last 2 campaigns are often said to have put out the last serious threats to Tokugawa hegemony.

In his career as a chief retainer of the first 4 Tokugawa shōguns[vi], Shinano no Kami’s life spanned the last gasps of the Sengoku Period and saw the birth of the so-called Pax Tokugawa[vii]. The shōgunate changed his domains 3 times, which meant his status as a daimyō was elevated 3 times.

An image of an audience with 3rd shogun Iemitsu. The shogun is seated in the dais at the top center of the picture. He is flanked by 2 attendants. The term attendant (koshō, in Japanese) is actually a somewhat erotically charged term. But to the best of my knowledge Hidetada didn't have an established sexual relationship with Naomasa. He probably just acted as an assistant and secretary.

An image of an audience with 3rd shogun Iemitsu. The shogun is seated in the dais at the top center of the picture. He is flanked by 2 attendants.
The term attendant (koshō, in Japanese) is actually a somewhat erotically charged term. But to the best of my knowledge Hidetada didn’t have an established sexual relationship with Naomasa. He probably just acted as an assistant and secretary.

.

OK, So This Guy Is Cool and All, But Why Is There a Place in Tokyo Called Shinanomachi?

According to the rules of 参勤交代 sankin-kōtai alternate attendance[viii], Nagai Naomasa (Shinano no Kami) was required to build 3 palaces in the shōgun’s capital at Edo. He built his下屋敷 shimo-yashiki lower residence[ix] in an area between modern Shinanomachi and 四ツ谷 Yotsuya. The title Shinano no Kami was hereditary and since all of the daimyō living in that palace were called Shinano no Kami (and indeed, this title is written on maps, not Nagai), it’s clear the local economy that popped up to service the Nagai daimyō and their retainers came to be called 信濃町 Shinano Machi “Shinano Town.”

Spoiler alert.  Nagai Naomasa becomes a monk.

Spoiler alert.
Nagai Naomasa becomes a monk.

Nagai Naomasa’s Final Days

In 1632, shōgun Hidetada died, and Naomasa was one of the daimyō in charge of overseeing the construction of the lavish funerary temple, 台徳院 Daitoku-in[x] at the Tokugawa 菩提寺 bodai-ji, family temple 増上寺 Zōjō-ji in 芝 Shiba[xi]. By the time of his retirement in 1658, his imperial court rank had been raised from 従五位下 ju go’i no ge Lower Junior 5th Rank to 従四位下 ju shi’i no ge Lower Junior 4th Rank[xii]. After retirement he became a Buddhist monk and changed his name to 信斎 Shinsai which means “holy truth” but preserves the first kanji from his courtly title. He eventually died in 1668 and then his body was interred at 興聖寺 Kōshō-ji Kōshō Temple in Kyōto.

Koshoji in Kyoto, final resting place of Nagai Naomasa - Shinano no Kami.  Not a bad place to go into that good night, right?

Koshoji in Kyoto, final resting place of Nagai Naomasa – Shinano no Kami.
Not a bad place to go into that good night, right?

In the popularized tales of samurai lore, Nagai Naomasa isn’t particularly well known. But I think you can appreciate that he was living in one of the most exciting times a Sengoku samurai could have lived in. He lived through the very tail end of the Sengoku Period – and definitely witnessed and participated in warfare. But he also lived to be an old man who saw the most stable regime anyone had seen in 100 years. It reminds me of the scene in Game of Thrones, where Bronn says “I’ve had an exciting life. I want my death to be boring.” Naomasa was of the first generation that made that dream a reality. He had grown up in a time full of violence but the dawn of the new age had afforded him the luxury of dying a peaceful death. Such a death was a luxury that would become a norm for the samurai of the Edo Period.

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[i] 郡 gun is sometimes translated as “county.”
[ii] By the way, why does Japan have prefectures and not states?
[iii] Two famous examples from the Edo Period are 吉良義央 Kira Yoshihisa – usually portrayed as the villain in the 47 Rōnin story – whose titles was 上野介 Kōzuke no Suke Guardian of Kōzuke Province – and 勝海舟 Katsu Kaishū – whose title was 阿波守 Awa no Kami Protector of Awa Province.
[iv] The short name for the province was 信州 Shinshū. By the way, the kanji for Shinano – like most provincial names – is most likely ateji. That is to say, there is no meaning.
[v] We talked about the Shimabara Rebellion the other day in my article on Fuda no Tsuji.
[vi] Ieyasu, Hidetada, Iemitsu, Ietsuna.
[vii] A pseudo-Latin term that means “Tokugawa Peace” based on the real Latin term Pax Romana “Roman Peace” – referring to the establishment of the Roman Empire under Augustus Caesar.
[viii] You should probably know the basics of alternate attendance.
[ix] A daimyō’s lower residence was often the largest estate. It was generally suburban and served as a refuge in case of disaster or if said daimyō just needed to get away from it all.
[x] Sometimes Romanized as Taitoku-in. Here’s my article about it.
[xi] Hidetada’s mortuary temple was one of the grandest examples of Edo Period funerary architecture, next to the mausolea in Nikkō, was probably one of the most unique graves of a Tokugawa Shōgun – without a doubt, it was the greatest example in Edo itself.
[xii] Don’t even ask me to explain the court rank system. I can’t! lol

Nijubashi – Tokyo’s Most Famous Bridge

In Japanese History on May 13, 2013 at 12:40 am

二重橋
Nijūbashi (Double Bridge)

Is this bridge really called Nijubashi or the Stone Bridge? Hmmmm... let's find out!

Is this bridge really called Nijubashi or the Stone Bridge? Hmmmm… let’s find out!

The bridge above is the main bridge to the Imperial Palace. It appears on guidebooks and postcards and is arguably the most famous bridge in Japan – even a symbol of Japan. Most people, including the Japanese, call it Nijūbashi. But this is sort of a case of mistaken identity.

First let’s look at the kanji:

 

二重
nijū

double


hashi

bridge


Nijūbashi is actually a nickname. The correct name of the bridge is 正門石橋 seimon ishibashi main entrance stone bridge.

Folk Etymology 1
There are actually two main bridges to the Imperial Palace. The 正門石橋 seimon ishibashi main entrance stone bridge and the 正門鉄橋 seimon tetsubashi the main entrance iron bridge. When you stand in front of the stone bridge you can see the iron bridge behind it and it looks like there are two bridges.

Double Bridges - Tokyo Imperial Palace

Seems legit.

Folk Etymology 2
When reflected in the moat, an illusion of two stone bridges occurs, hence a “double bridge.” Some old people actually refer to the bridge as メガネ橋 meganebashi the “glasses” bridge because… well, it looks like a pair of glasses.

Double Bridge or Glasses Bridge - Tokyo Imperial Palace

I see what you did there…

Those two stories are cute, but they’re not actually correct. Here’s the real deal:

Edo Castle also had two bridges here, but the names were different. The stone bridge was a wooden bridge called 西之丸大手橋 nishi no maru ōtebashi “front bridge to the western compound” and the iron bridge was also a wooden bridge called 西之丸下乗橋 nishi no maru kejōbashi “dismount bridge to the western compound.”*

Nijubashi was actually the nickname of the kejōbashi (now the iron bridge), not the ōtebashi (now the stone bridge). The bridge was built in 1614 by the shōgun, Tokugawa Hidetada. The bridge had a secondary wooden support mechanism built underneath which made it a 2 level construction. Because of these two levels, it looked like there were two bridges. The nickname 二重橋 nijūbashi/futaebashi came to be used as it was quite a distinctive bridge.

The Original Nijubashi - Edo Castle

A hard to see photo of the original “double bridge.”

Here's a digital version of the same view of the old kejobashi.

Here’s a digital version of the same view of the old kejobashi.

When the imperial court moved into the castle in 1868 but the bridges remained. After the confiscation and destruction of the daimyō residences in Daimyō Alley and elsewhere, the old bridge and gate system was re-evaluated. The two bridges were chosen as the main entrances to Tokyo Castle (the Imperial Palace). The kejōbashi was torn down and replaced with an iron bridge in 1888. It was rebuilt again in 1964 to match the 新宮殿 Shin Kyūden the New Palace, which is the collection of shitty 60’s-looking buildings that litter the palace grounds.

The iron bridge as it looks today (the true

The iron bridge as it looks today (the true “nijubashi”)

The 大手橋 ōtebashi was also torn down and replaced with the famous stone bridge in 1887. Because of its modern style, it quickly became a very high profile bridge – especially with the demolition of Daimyō Alley and the encroachment of commoners to the inner moats (in the Edo Period most commoners probably wouldn’t have been able to get too close).

Side view of the original otebashi bridge (now the stone bridge). My guess is the photographer was standing on the kejobashi... maybe...

Side view of the original otebashi bridge (now the stone bridge). My guess is the photographer was standing on the kejobashi… maybe…

Main Bridge to Edo Castle

Front view of the original ōtebashi  taken by a lopsided person. (present day stone bridge).

In the Meiji Period, since the old kejōbashi formerly known as Nijūbashi no longer looked like a double bridge, the new main bridge became associated with the name. All the strange folk etymologies started popping up then too. And even though the bridge is not formally referred to as Nijūbashi, the Chiyoda Line subway station in the area (built in the 1970’s) is called 二重橋前駅 Nijūbashimae Eki Nijūbashi Front Station. Today the area around the station and bridge is colloquially referred to as Nijūbashi or Nijūbashimae.

Imperial Palace Bridge Satellite

In case you were wondering where the bridges go… The left one is the stone bridge, the right one is the iron bridge. (Interestingly, if you look up 二重橋 on google maps/google earth, the iron bridge is – correctly – labelled as Nijubashi).

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* I’m not sure if I’ve translated the term correctly because I don’t really understand the purpose of this particular bridge. 下乗 kejō means “dismount” as in “get off of a horse.”
Also, if you’re curious about what “maru” means, please have a look on my post about Marunōchi and Daimyō Alley.

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