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Posts Tagged ‘meiji’

What does Jinnan mean?

In Japanese History on March 9, 2020 at 4:52 pm

神南
Jinnan (southern spirit; more at “south of the shrine”)

jinnan shibuya
Last time, we explored 宇田川町 Udagawa-chō Udagawa-chō which is located in 渋谷 Shibuya Shibuya. One of the points I hoped to start to convey is that place names in 東京 Tōkyō Tōkyō are far more complicated than you’d think at an initial glance. When most people say “Shibuya,” they could be referring to the train station and its immediate surroundings. That said, they could also be referring to the larger administrative district known as 渋谷区 Shibuya-ku Shibuya Ward. You’ve probably never heard anyone refer to Udagawachō or 神南 Jinnan Jinnan, yet people living in Shibuya will probably recognize these place names, even if they don’t use them regularly. But lucky for you, we’re going to do a deep dive into the real Shibuya.

Just a quick refresher on your Edo-Tōkyō history. When we get this far west, we’re talking about an area that was straight up rice paddies as far as the eye could see – suburban at best. The area had two major influxes. The first was after the 1923 関東大震災 Kantō Daishinsai Great Kantō Earfquake. The second was after Japan’s defeat in World War II in 1945. I like driving this point home again and again because today, Shibuya is a straight up city center. 70 years ago, things would’ve been very different. 100 years ago… whoa, even more different. 150 years ago, you’d just see farmers.

Further Reading:

shibuya magnet 109 mens

109 Mens/Shibuya Magnet

Let’s Look at the Kanji


kami; kan, ; shin/jin

kami (a supernatural being; diety) worshipped at a shrine;
the Japanese emperor (under the system of “State Shintō” – roughly 1868-1945)


minami; nan

south

Now that we know the kanji, I can give you the TL;DR explanation. Jinnan simply means “south of the shrine.” Knowing that the first character can be a reference to the emperor, particularly between 1868 and 1945, I think some of you familiar with Shibuya Ward probably have an idea where this is going. For those of you who don’t and those of you who want to know the whole story, let’s dig into it.

jinnan kafe

Jinnan Cafe in Shibuya

Once Upon a Shrine

In 1868, the last shogun 徳川慶喜 Tokugawa Yoshinobu relinquished control of his capital 江戸 Edo Edo and his seat of government 江戸城 Edo-jō Edo Castle. The recently ascended 明治天皇 Meiji Tennō Meiji Emperor made the long journey from his palace in 京 Kyō the “Capital”[i] to Edo, which was soon renamed 東京 Tōkyō the “Eastern Capital.” As we all know, this was the beginning of the 明治時代 Meiji Jidai Meiji Period. This emperor reigned for a unusually long time – more than 40 years! – which saw Japan transform itself from an isolated “feudal” society into a “westernized” industrial society asserting itself on the global stage by creating a “western style” empire in East Asia[ii]. While the rest of Asia was being overrun by western imperialist powers, Japan had a lot to be proud of. It was a success story in a part of the world that to this day has many countries that are still “developing.”[iii]

Emperor Meiji Dammit

The Meiji Emperor during a fit of constipation

Then the unthinkable happened. Around midnight on July 29th, 1912 (Meiji 44)[iv] at the age of 59[v], the Meiji Emperor left this mortal coil for the first (and last) time. Not only were his wife, 昭憲皇后 Shōken Kōgō Empress Shōken[vi], and his five official concubines[vii] heartbroken, but an entire nation went into mourning. Afterall, this was a descendant of 天照大御神 Amaterasu-no-Ōkami the sun goddess. He had presided over an unprecedented social, economic, political, and technological revolution. People who remembered the final days of the Tokugawa Shōgunate were geriatrics – and there weren’t many of them left, to be sure. Under the leadership of the first “hands on” emperor[viii] in almost a thousand years, Japan had reinvented itself and its society. The institution of the Chrysanthemum Throne was exalted in religious terms that rejected Buddhism as a foreign religion adopted by the samurai of past and placed the emperor at the head of Japan’s native spiritual cults under the banner something we now call 国家神道 Kokka Shintō State Shintō[ix]. The death of the Meiji Emperor was so traumatic, that one of his top generals, 野木丸介 Nogi Marusuke Nogi Marusuke, forced is wife to “commit suicide” before he killed himself in an act of 殉死 junshi following one’s lord to the grave.

Further Reading:

Emperor Meiji Grave

Emperor Meiji’s burial mound in Kyōto

Establishment of Meiji Shrine

Although the Meiji Emperor died in 1912 and his empress in 1914, no major shrine was erected immediately following their passing. They were interred in a Shintō-style burial mound, reminiscent of 古墳 kofun kofun[x], in Kyōto where emperors had been buried since the Heian Period. Because of empire building and the subsequent foreign wars that came along with all that and the massive tragedy of the Great Kantō Earfquake in 1923, the government had a full plate, so building a major shrine in Tōkyō was put on the backburner.

However, things started to settle down a bit, and in 1915, the government chose an iris garden on the grounds of the former suburban palace of 井伊家 Ii-ke the Ii clan[xi] to build a sprawling shrine complex to honor the emperor and his empress[xii]. The imperial couple loved this garden and so the site had been chosen way back in 1912. Wars and whatnot kept the pace slow, but the shittiest architect Japan ever produced, 伊藤忠太 Itō Chūta Itō Chūta[xiii], finished the main hall of 明治神宮 Meiji Jingū Meiji Imperial Shrine in 1920. The government formally dedicated the space in 1920 and all construction was completed in 1921. The space was opened to the public in 1926 and the state bestowed upon it the title of 官幣大社 kanpei taisha, basically Government Shrine #1 (ie; officially this was the most important Shintō shrine in the country even though way more ancient shrines had existed for millennia).

meiji imperial shrine harajuku

Of course, in 1945, the Americans fire bombed Tōkyō back into the stone age and the shrine was lost. Sadly, it took about 13 years to rebuild the shrine, but in 1958, the current iteration of the shrine was complete. So yeah, for you tourists coming to Tōkyō for the first time, this isn’t an ancient shrine. It’s from the 1920’s, but what you’re looking at is from the 1950’s and… well, it’s still an important shrine. It’s just really modern as far as “important shrines” go[xiv].

Further Reading:

map shibuya jinnan romaji

That’s Cool and All, But I Thought We were Talking about Jinnan…

We’re are definitely talking about Jinnan. So, settle the fuck down, OK? I just wanted to give y’all some context, dammit. You know, because the rest of the story isn’t very interesting, to be completely honest. From here on out, it’s just bureaucratic mumbo jumbo. That said, it’s how we have to wrap this story up.

As I mentioned, Meiji Shrine opened in 1926, but there was a major administrative shake up in 1928. This area used to be called 東京府豊多摩郡渋谷町 Tōkyō-fu Toyotama-gun Shibuya Machi Shibuya Town, Toyotama District, Tōkyō Prefecture[xv]. A huge swath of that district was made up of the areas formerly known as of 前耕地 Maekōchi Maekōchi, 豊沢 Toyosawa Toyosawa, 宇田川 Udagawa Udagawa, and 深町 Fukamachi Fukamachi which were merged and the new area was named 神南町 Kannami-chō Kannami-chō which literally means “the town south of the shrine.” Careful observers will notice that Kannami uses the same kanji as Jinnan.

toyosawa kaizuka shell mound

Toyosawa Kaizuka – a Jōmon Period shell mound in Shibuya Ward.

Fast forward to 1963, Japan establishes the precursor to the modern postal code system. Long time readers of JapanThis! will be familiar with the effect this law has had on local place names. The first thing that happened is that Kannami-chō was divided up into three new administrative districts: 神山町 Kamiyama-chō Kamiyama-chō which means “shrine hill,” 神宮前 Jingūmae Jingūmae which means “in front of the shrine,” and 渋谷区神南一丁目神南二丁目 Shibuya-ku Kannami itchōme/nichōme 1st and 2nd blocks of Kannami, Shibuya Ward.

Fast forward to 1970, Shibuya Ward declares that Kannami shall henceforth be read as Jinnan. But why? You see, in 1946, sweeping orthographic reforms[xvi] were applied to the Japanese language. One of the most important aspects of this was the establishment of 当用漢字 tōyō kanji, an official list of 1,850 general use characters[xvii]. Basically, to be considered literate, you needed to know all these characters. One aspect of these reforms was to eliminate irregular readings of kanji. Basically, they wanted to simplify things for the benefit of public literacy. As Japan’s economy transformed from agriculture to manufacturing, having everyone on same proverbial page as quickly as possible was imperative. It took seven years to do anything about it, but eventually Kannami had to change because it was a flagrant example of irregular kanji reading under the tōyō kanji prescriptions which weren’t just suggestions but actual law. I mean, nobody was going to go to jail for irregular kanji use, but a city ward in the capital wouldn’t be setting a good example if it just endorsed wacky place name, right?

Now, this wasn’t just pedantry by fiat. There’s an interesting logic behind this name change. Meiji Shrine uses the word jingū (grand shrine; imperial shrine). The area in front of the shrine is called Jingūmae, and so Jinnan fits the naming pattern nicely. The name is easier to read, easier to remember, and the ward can wrap this linguistic package up nicely with a tidy little bow.

yoyogi park greasers

“Greasers” dancing in Yoyogi Park. They have great taste in shoes, but terrible taste in music lol

Heart of Shibuya

I mentioned in my last article on Udagawa-chō that anyone who has ever visited Shibuya had most definitely been in that neighborhood. I’m gonna go out on a limb and make the same claim about Jinnan. It’s right next to Udagawa-chō and so similar that unless you check the postal codes on buildings, you probably wouldn’t notice that you’d passed from one area to the other.

band maid tower records shibuya

Tower Records, Shibuya (Jinnan)

Jinnan is essentially a shopping and business district. As of 2017, its population was a whopping 576 people; most of the people you see around are either customers, tourists, or employees of some sort. In this respect, it’s very similar to Udagawa-chō. The area is home to OIOI Marui Marui Department Store, 109 Mens Ichi Maru Kyū Menzu 109 Mens Department Store, and タワーレコード Tawā Rekōdo Tower Records, the main hub for all things J-Pop and J-Rock.

photo by Arne Müseler / www.arne-mueseler.com

Yoyogi National Stadium

It’s not just shopping, though. NHK放送センター NHK Hōsō Sentā NHK Broadcast Center is in Jinnan. 代々木公園 Yoyogi Kōen is in Jinnan. Also, this is home to 国立代々木競技場 Kokuritsu Yoyogi Kyōgijō the Yoyogi National Gymnasium designed by Pritzker Prize winning architect, 丹下健三 Tange Kenzō Tange Kenzō[xviii], which served as the gymnasium and pool for the 1964 Tōkyō Olympics. Apparently, this facility will be used for handball, whatever the fuck that is, in the 2020 Tōkyō Olympics… that is, if they’re not cancelled because of the coronavirus. There are also a handful of businesses offering high-end sexual services, but unless you’re Japanese, these are probably off the table for you[xix].

Further Reading:

shibuya crossing intersection intersexion jinnan

In Conclusion

In conclusion, I’ve got nothing to say, really. Basically, Jinnan is just like Udagawa-chō. It’s what most people think of when they think of Shibuya: the shopping district right in front of Shibuya Station’s ハチ公口 Hachikō-guchi Hachikō Exit.

On a side note, I just noticed that my last article was number 333. That’s just half of 666!!! It’s taken a while to get there, and finally reaching the number of the beast[xx] will definitely take more time as my earliest articles were pretty short and cheesy. I do much more intensive research now. But, hey, here we are. Thanks for reading and sharing, and for those of you try to support the site financially when you can, thank you from the bottom of my heart.

 

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Explore Edo-Tōkyō With Me Japan This Guided Tours
(It’s not for tourists, it’s for history nerds!)

 


[i] Also known as 京都 Kyōto Kyōto – duh.
[ii] Yes, I know. Lots of “scare quotes” in that sentence, but that’s because I’m going to “breeze over” all the “nuance” required to “explain” that stuff because it really isn’t important to our “story” today.
[iii] There are those “scare quotes” again.
[iv] The official announcement was on July 30th, at 00:42 so this is the official day of his passing. However, he actually died on July 29th at 22:40. トメトトマト
[v] That’s 413 in dog years!!!
[vi] Her “real name” was 一条勝子 Ichijō Masako. How very Kyōto of her.
[vii] Dude had plenty of side bitches on the DL, too.
[viii] Again, “scare quotes.” How “hands on” the dude actually was… yeah, that’s a conversation for another time.
[ix] It should be said, “State Shintō” was a term created by the American Occupation as a way to erase the cult of “emperor worship.” The term was useful for discussing the need to include the Separation of Church and State in the new post-war constitution.
[x] Ancient burial mounds built between 250-550 CE, essentially the period that saw the consolidation of a “national polity” based around the Yamato clan (ie; the imperial family) before the introduction of Buddhism to Japan. Small versions of these mounds were popular during the Meiji Period among elites who wished to express their loyalty to the emperor. The last shogun, Tokugawa Yoshinobu, even requested that he not be buried with the other shōguns and given a Shintō-style grave.
[xi] Yes, the Ii clan. As in 井伊直正 Ii Naomasa Ii Naomasa, one of the first shōgun’s most trusted generals, and 井伊直弼 Ii Naosuke Ii Naosuke, the shogunal regent who decided to end Japan’s isolationist policy, only to be assassinated by anti-foreigner terrorist from 水戸藩 Mito Han Mito Domain in front of Edo Castles notorious 桜田御門 Sakurada Go-mon Sakurada Gate.
[xii] Not sure what happened to the concubines and side bitches. Maybe I’ll look into that some day for y’all.
[xiii] Long time readers will recognize this assclown as the architecture of 月島本願寺 Tsukishima Hongan-ji Tsukishima Hongan Temple which I included in this article.
[xiv] Whoa. There are those “scare quotes” again. Seems to be a theme today.
[xv] By the way, Toyotama District was a huuuuuuge area. It used to comprise: 内藤新宿町 Naitō Shinjuku Machi Naitō Shinjuku Town, 淀橋町 Yodobashi Machi Yodobashi Town, 大久保村 Ōkubō Mura Ōkubō Village, 戸塚村 Totsuka Mura Totsuka Village, 渋谷村 Shibuya Mura Shibuya Village, 千駄ヶ谷村 Sendagaya Mura Sendagaya Village, 中野宿 Nakano-shuku Nakano Post Town, 杉並村 Suginami Mura Suginami Village, 高井戸宿 Takaido-shuku Takaido Post Town. I’ve covered most of those place names, so place use the search function if you’re interested in following up on them.
[xvi] “Orthographic reforms” is just smart people talk for “spelling reforms.” Yes, I’m a smart person.
[xvii] In 1981, this system was updated to 常用漢字 jōyō kanji everyday use kanji which were the 1,945 characters in use when I moved to Japan. However, in 2010, the government increased jōyō kanji to 2,136 characters. For native speakers, this was no big deal, as many of these kanji had crept back into common usage anyway, but this was a pretty frustrating move for people studying Japanese for the first time. I mean, they literally made one of the biggest hurdles for most people, ie; kanji, even more intimidating.
[xviii] Even if you’re not into architecture, Tange is a giant in the field. Ever been to 広島平和記念公園 Hiroshima Heiwa Kinen Kōen Hiroshima Peace Park? Yeah, he designed that. Dude is kind of a big deal.
[xix] I guarantee you that somebody is googling this now.
[xx] By the way, the so-called “number of the beast” (ie; 666) is the number you get when you add up Emperor Nero’s name in Ancient Greek.

Why does Japan have Prefectures?

In Japan, Japanese History on July 11, 2013 at 2:48 am

都道府県
To-dō-fu-ken Metropolis, Prefecture, Prefecture, Prefecture.

Japan's 47 modern prefectures

Japan’s 47 modern prefectures

Yesterday’s post took something like 3 days to put together – and it’s not even finished. I don’t want to work myself to death like I was during my series on the Tokugawa funerary temples. So today I’ve chosen a topic that requires zero research[i].

Anyways, I get this question a lot from friends. Why does Japan use the word “prefecture?”

Well, Japan doesn’t use the word prefecture. Japan has a set of 4 words they use to describe these “states.”

 

ken prefecture

Of the current 47 prefectures, most use the word 県 ken prefecture; so, for example, 埼玉県 Saitama-ken Saitama Prefecture, 千葉県 Chiba-ken Chiba Prefecture, and 神奈川県 Kanagawa-ken Kanagawa Prefecture.

fu prefecture

2 prefectures uses the word 府 fu prefecture; 大阪府 Ōsaka-fu Ōsaka Prefecture 京都府 Kyōto-fu Kyōto Prefecture[ii].

prefecture

1 prefecture uses 道 dō prefecture; 北海道 Hokkaidō Hokkaidō Prefecture. I’m hesitant to say “Hokkaidō Prefecture” because the “” is never separated from the word in Japanese or English, so Hokkaidō Prefecture would be back-translated into Japanese as 北海道道 Hokkaidōdō, which just sounds retarded[iii].

to metropolis

Finally, we have 都 to metropolis, of which there can only be one. And that is 東京都 Tōkyō-to Tōkyō Metropolis.

In the Edo Period, the Tokugawa shōgunate had a very restrictive foreign policy[iv]. At this time, relations with other countries were so irregular, that foreign countries had no standard for referring to the power structure or rulers of Japan. After the shōgunate fell and the Meiji court began its reforms in earnest, several problems became apparent.

1) How do we structure our government?

Assloads of doctoral theses have written on this topic in various languages all around the world, so I’m not going to even take a half-assed stab at describing this process in detail. But basically, the Japanese had been sending officials overseas to Europe and America to look at how education, government, international relations, business, and industry were being handled in those countries. These ambassadorial missions had begun in the final years of the Tokugawa regime and became regular when foreign relations became normalized under the Meiji regime.

Since the Meiji regime was centered on a divine emperor, they had a unique problem. While the American model was progressive, industrial, realistic, and had also overthrown a previous regime, America espoused states’ rights, separation of church and state[v], and it enfranchised voters; as such, it wasn’t a good match for this particular brand of revolutionary oligarchs[vi].

Prussia and Germany were parts of a massive Empire that spanned huge swaths of Europe. They were an imperialistic power (in that they were interested in military expansion) and they were an imperial power (in that they had an emperor at the top of their hierarchy). In the final days of the Tokugawa shōgunate, France had been trading and supplying weapons, training, and military help to the Japanese. France had been using the word préfecture since Napoleon’s time for its own major civil administrative units. Napoleon was seen by the Japanese ambassadorial legations as a revolutionary emperor who modernized and expanded France[vii].

2) How do we present ourselves to the world?

Now that for the first time since the European Age of Enlightenment, Japan had normalized relations with other countries and they were rapidly modernizing in an effort to catch up[viii] with the western powers that had pried open their clam. There was suddenly a problem. The major western powers they were dealing with were all speaking somewhat related languages, or had at least been dealing with one another for such a long period of time that they shared many political terms. Each country had standard vocabulary they could use in discussing another country. Japan was new to this game and with a language related to nothing outside of it besides China and Korea[ix], they had to think quickly of how they wanted to be perceived by the west.

In order to create a diplomatic language that showed Japan in a particular light, they decided upon a few things. First of all, as noted before, the Meiji government was all over the German and Prussian game because they sought to emulate the emperor-centric systems of those countries. They decided that the word 国会 kokkai national assembly should be translated into English in the same way as the German words Landtag (state parliament) and Reichstag (national parliament). They saw the German Empire as strong and historical and emperor-centric and it was good enough for them.

The second thing they chose was the word “prefecture.” They chose this for a number of reasons. First, as I mentioned before, they loooooved Napoleon. Secondly, there was a long standing precedent. When the Portuguese came to Japan in the 1500’s, they used the word prefeitura which translates easily into the language of any country with a history connected to the Roman Empire[x]. The term was Napoleonic and Roman. Thirdly, this term “prefecture” indicated – in no uncertain terms – that the governor of the area was appointed by the emperor. He wasn’t an elected official[xi]. And lastly, it didn’t carry any connotation of a quasi-independent “state.”  In particular, they didn’t want to be compared to those pesky states of the United States of America, some of which had recently exercised their perceived autonomy and attempted to secede and/or overthrow the government. It’s funny how governments that stage illegal coups do that[xii].

So the short answer is my challenge to you.

Can you summarize this explanation in 5 or less sentences?

I’ve never been able to do it.

If you can, yoroshiku onegai shimasu!!

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[i] OK, that’s not true. There’s a little fact checking going on here and there.
[ii] Longtime readers should be familiar with the former administrative unit 東京府 Tōkyō-fu Tōkyō Prefecture.
[iii] 道 dō is the word for North and South Korean provinces too. This word was also a common word for province names in classical China.
[iv] I’d say it was a closed country (鎖国 sakoku), but some people will insist Japan simply enacted a policy of restricting access to the sea (海禁 kaikin). But the effect was the same. The average Japanese and its rulers didn’t really give a shit about anything off its shores.
[v] In theory, lolololololololololol
[vi] A bunch of hereditary, entitled samurai got replaced by a mix of a different bunch of hereditary, entitled ex-samurai and a bunch of hereditary, entitled douchebags from Kyōto.
[vii] Even though in 1870 the Second French Empire collapsed, only to be replaced by a third government (yes, the one that Hitler bulldozed over in an astonishing 2 years’ time).
[viii] Meiji Japan modernized with lightning speed, but this was all part of a philosophy called 富国強兵 fukoku-kyōhei rich country strong army (which sounds like North Korea to me), and was part of the downward spiral into the theocratic fascism and imperialism that fueled the Pacific War.
[ix] Countries which they had respected in the past, but China had been debilitated by westerners and Korea tried to isolate itself (now a passé attitude in Japan).
[x] A system of prefects (appointed governors) and prefectures (areas governed by appointed governors). Areas that could understand this term easily included Europe, Russia, and North and South America – the only people the Japanese cared to impress at the time.

A side note: in the Roman Empire, a prefect is a præfectus and a prefecture is a præfectura.

[xi] This is totally different after WWII.
[xii] And by illegal coups, I’m looking at you, Chōshū, Satsuma, Tosa, and the fucking imperial court.

What does Kudanshita mean?

In Japanese History on July 3, 2013 at 2:00 am

九段下
Kudanshita (Bottom of the 9 Levels, more at Bottom of the 9 Level Hill)

Cherry blossoms along the outer moat of Edo Castle.

Cherry blossoms along the outer moat of Edo Castle.

First of all, before we look at this name. I want to give a well-deserved thank you to Eric at Jcastle. Before I had seen an illustration of the Edo Era area, I had a hard time visualizing the stone wall constructions mentioned herein. But sight unseen, by the name he was able to identify the type of construction and explain it clearly and concisely. Much respect.

OK, so this place name is a vestige of a set of well-known place names in the Edo Period that became better known in the Meiji Era. The train station in the Kudanshita area made this place name the dominant name of the area since the 1960’s.

The kanji are:

kyuu/ku nine
dan level, stair
shita bottom

The second kanji is most well-known as the second character in the word 階段 kaidan stairway/stairs.

OK, so in the Edo Period, there was a big ass hill that led up from 飯田町 Iidamachi. Keeping in mind the yamanote vs. shitamachi dynamic, Iidamchi was a shitamachi town for commoners and the top of the hill was a yamanote area for samurai. Originally, the hill’s name was 飯田町中坂 Iidamachi Nakazaka.

Going up the face of the hill, the shōgunate built a residence for officials who were working in Edo Castle, but the pitch of the hill was so steep that they had to reinforce it with stone walls and stairs that ascended the hill in 9 levels.

Anyhoo, from my understanding, these were low ranking bureaucrats and so the residence wouldn’t have been anything very special. It was a essentially a barracks, which was nothing more than glorified 長屋 nagaya rowhouses. The only thing unique about it was the 9 levels (stairs, if you will) and the 9 levels of stone walls. Because of this unique feature, the building came to be known as the 九段屋敷 Kudan Yashiki 9 Levels Residence. The hill also came to be called 九段坂 Kudanzaka the 9 Levels Hill.

Iidamachi Nakazaka

Iidamachi Nakazaka
(click for larger size)

A close up. You can clearly see the 9 levels of the walls of the barracks and the 9 large steps going up the hill.

A close up. You can clearly see the 9 levels of the walls of the barracks and the 9 large steps going up the hill.

Fast forward to the Meiji Period, the daimyō are kicked out of their Edo palaces and the 旗本 hatamoto, direct retainers of the Tokugawa shōgun family are evicted from their barracks and all the shōgun’s holdings in Edo are confiscated by imperial court. The Kudan Residence was either demolished or repurposed (I’m not sure which, to be honest). And the top of the hill was cleared for the construction of 2 new important structures.

The first was the 灯明台 tōmyōdai, a lighthouse built in Meiji 4 (1871) to help safely guide in fishing boats into Tōkyō Bay. The standard word for lighthouse is 灯台 tōdai, but this one has a religious nuance to it.  灯明 tōmyō refers to an offering of light to the gods. The reason for the religious overtones will become obvious very soon.

Tomyodai in the Meiji Period

Tomyodai in the Late Meiji or Taisho.

Painting of the Tomyodai in action

Painting of the Tomyodai in action

Tomyodai as it looks today

Tomyodai as it looks today

Tomyo usually refers to this. (I took this picture at Zojo-ji)

Tomyo usually refers to this.
(I took this picture at Zojo-ji, just wanted to explain what tomyo means)

The final years of the bakumatsu was marked by a 2 year civil war between supporters of the Tokugawa shōgunate and the über lame imperial army[i] called the 戊辰戦争 Boshin Sensō Boshin War. After putting down the samurai insurgency, the imperial court built a shrine on the top of the hill to enshrine those who had died fighting in service of the emperor. As the Empire of Japan waged wars of Imperialism, the shrine became the main shrine for the war dead of Japan. The shrine is called 靖国神社 Yasukuni Jinja Yasukuni Shrine[ii]. The shrine is akin to Arlington Cemetery in the United States as a place where people can reflect on the service of people who died in military service of their country. Supposedly, this is the only shrine at which the Emperor of Japan bows.

The haiden (main hall/front hall) of Yasukuni Shrine. On most occasions, this is the closest you'll get.

The haiden (main hall/front hall) of Yasukuni Shrine.
On most occasions, this is the closest you’ll get.

The honden (inner sanctuary). This is where the war dead are "actually" enshrined.

The honden (inner sanctuary). This is where the war dead are “actually” enshrined.
My understanding is that this was the main structure of the shrine until 1901 when the haiden (front hall) was built.
Today, this building (renovated) is generally inaccessible.

The honden as it looks today.

The honden as it looks today.
This is from Yasukuni’s website so it’s a small picture.
People usually aren’t allowed in past the front hall (haiden) so your chances of seeing this building are next to none.

Yasukuni Shrine wouldn’t be anything particularly interesting outside of Japan, except that in 1969 and 1978, some of the right-wing leaning priests secretly elected to enshrine more than a 1000 people convicted of war crimes in WWII. The list included 14 Class A war criminals[iii]. Later when the documents were made public, the shit hit the fan in Korea and China and the shrine has been at the center of controversy ever since.

In 1965, a tiny wooden shrine called 鎮霊社 Chinreisha Spirit Pacifying Shrine was built. This shrine includes two separate places of enshrinement. One honors the war dead who fought against the emperor in the Boshin War (including the Shinsengumi, Shōgitai, and the forces of Aizu Domain) as well as those who died in defense of Japan in any form since 1853 when the Americans forced the country open. The other is dedicated to all war dead everywhere, regardless of nationality and era[iv]. It even includes those who fought against Japan[v].

The Chin-chin Reisha. I've heard this isn't always open to visitors, especially when the controversy pops up in the news as it does from time to time. Because of the enshrinement of the enemies of Japan, some Japanese right-wingers get pissed off about it.  And because of the enshrinement of the enemies of Japan, sometimes the Chinese and Koreans get pissed off about it.

The Chin-chin Reisha.I’ve heard this isn’t always open to visitors, especially when the controversy pops up in the news as it does from time to time.
Because of the enshrinement of the enemies of Japan,
some Japanese right-wingers get pissed off about it.
And because of the enshrinement of the enemies of Japan,
some Chinese and Koreans get pissed off about it.
Whatever.
FFS, it’s just shack in the woods behind the shrine.
DMY 

OK, so we’re waaaaaaaaaaay off track now. But anyways, that’s the tie-in with the lighthouse. The original Yasukuni Shrine was built in 1869 and the lighthouse was built just outside of the temple precincts in 1871. Both locations quickly became new Tōkyō landmarks. The lighthouse was a western import showcasing Japan’s mastery of foreign technology, the shrine was a traditional building that reinforced the idea of loyalty to the emperor and respect for ancestors who died defending him. The location was on one of the highest hills near 東京城 Tōkyō-jō Tōkyō Castle[vi], again reinforcing the supremacy of the emperor with technological, religious and military symbolism. Well played, Mr. Emperor. Well played.

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Another view of the hill and the moat.  Note the walls on the right side.

Another view of the hill and the moat.
Note the walls on the right side.

The name Kudanzaka was applied to the area for a long time. And even today there still exist a 九段北 Kudan Kita North Kudan and 九段南 Kudan Minami South Kudan (north and south being geographical references and having nothing to do with the hill, of course). In 1964, a subway station was built at the bottom of the Kudanzaka (Kudan Hill). The station name was 九段下 Kudanshita Bottom of Kudan and since then the name has come to be applied to the whole area.

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[i] Worst uniforms EVER.

[ii] Yasukuni means “peaceful country” but is often translated as “pacifying the country.” Kinda ironic given the Meiji Era is the beginning of Japanese expansion and imperialism which is – by definition – not peaceful.

[iii] Not including George Bush and Dick Cheney because (1) they’re not dead and (2) they didn’t serve the emperor of Japan.

[iv] I wonder if that includes the 17th, 18th, and 19th legions of the Roman Empire. I mean, they did die in war…. Hmmm, makes you think.

[v] It’s not famous, though. Most Tōkyōites have never heard of it.

[vi] When the city’s name changed from Edo to Tōkyō, the castle’s name changed too.

Tokugawa Yoshinobu

In Japanese History, Japanese Shrines & Temples, Tokugawa Shogun Graves, Travel in Japan on June 18, 2013 at 2:22 am

徳川慶喜
Tokugawa Yoshinobu
 (Auspiciously Awesome Virtuous River[†])
十五代将軍徳川慶喜公
15th Shōgun, Lord Tokugawa Yoshinobu
Yanaka Cemetery

Tokugawa Yoshinobu. The Last Shōgun

Tokugawa Yoshinobu.
A Real Shōgun.

It is with a very bittersweet feeling that I write this blog.

My interest in Japanese history was started by a desire to visit all the graves of the 15 Tokugawa shōguns. I’ve been in Japan for about 8 years and I’ve visited all the graves but the private ones at Kan’ei-ji. I thought writing this blog would be cathartic. I thought it would bring me full circle, but it hasn’t. Although I know much more now than I did a month or so ago when I started this series, I have even more questions now.

To make things worse, halfway through the series, the shōgunate imposed austerity measures which cut back on the building of new temple-like mausolea. This brought the series to a grinding halt in terms of new funerary content[i]. If you go back through the series you will see a noticeable development in burial types which culminated in Ienobu and Ietsugu’s magnificent mausolea at Zōjō-ji.

Sadly, little remains of the structures at Kan’ei-ji and Zōjō-ji. This definitely makes me appreciate the beauty and majesty of Tōshō-gū and Taiyūin at Nikkō all the more. I hope you can appreciate them in a new light as well. And if you visit Kan’ei-ji and Zōjō-ji here in Tōkyō, I hope you walk around all of the former temple precinct with smartphone in hand so you can check my pictures and maps. A few readers have said they’ve done this and… well… if you don’t think that’s exciting, then I don’t know why you’re reading my blog. lol

Yoshinobu loved photography. He also loved to ham it up in front of the camera. I'd love to see his "private stash" of photos, if you know what I mean....

Yoshinobu loved photography.
He also loved to ham it up in front of the camera.
Dude was a player, so I’d love to see his “private stash” of photos,
if you know what I mean….

So yeah… We’re at the last shōgun, Tokugawa Yoshinobu. The Meiji Era historians started a tradition which pictured him as a puppet of a failed regime. The man himself actually lived a full life outside of the public square. Yes, he was the last shōgun. Yes, he gave power (back?) to the emperor. Yes, he represented the losing side of this epoch. But, he wasn’t a pawn. He wasn’t a puppet. He wasn’t a loser.

It’s fun to speculate. What if Yoshinobu had been made shōgun instead of the 12 year old ass hat, Iemochi? How would things have gone down in the final days of the Tokugawa Shōgunate?

We’ll never know.

The last shōgun, handed the reins of government to the imperial court in November of 1867 at Nijō Castle in Kyōto. The dude was asked to take the worst job in the country and he did it. He totally rose to the occasion. In my estimation, Yoshinobu took the shit job, took the shame that came with it, wasn’t executed and lived the rest of his life in privacy and humility. He didn’t do interviews or write books. He never exerted himself into politics.

I don't know if this is when he was actually shogun, or if he was just cosplaying.

I don’t know if this is when he was actually shogun,
or if he was just cosplaying.

Yoshinobu was originally born into the Mito Tokugawa family, which held a particular view of Japanese history that was uniquely Emperor-centric. It held that the shōgun’s powers over the state (天下 tenka the realm – “heaven and earth”) had been granted by the Emperor and as such, the shōgun was an agent of the emperor. To oppose the emperor was treason. Yoshinobu tried to avoid directly confronting the imperial court (and the de facto imperial army – itself a revolutionary force).

In quiet submission to the emperor, Yoshinobu lived well into the Meiji Period. One of the sources I’ve looked at for this series was a Tōkyō guide book written in 1913 which mentioned that Yoshinobu was still alive and well in the ancestral lands of the Tokugawa, Shizuoka. Unfortunately for the authors for the authors of the book or for Yoshinobu himself, the former shōgun died in November of that same year[ii].

But keep in mind, Yoshinobu intentionally humbled himself in submission to the emperor. Any honors that were bestowed upon him and his family were quietly and humbly received[iii]. He lived out most of his life fucking elite bitches and pursuing his hobby of photography. His lawful wife was a court noblewoman named Mikako. And although Yoshinobu stayed out of politics, he was very close to the imperial court. The emperor gave his family rank in the peerage system and granted him his own branch family, separate from the shamed 徳川将軍家 Tokugawa Shōgun-ke Shōgunal Tokugawa Family[ii.1], his new branch was the 徳川慶喜家 Tokugawa Yoshinobu-ke the Yoshinobu Branch of the Tokugawa Family.

Old man Yoshinobu.

Old man Yoshinobu.

Then he died.

What to do, what to do?

They could have enshrined him with the other shōguns at Zōjō-ji or Kan’ei-ji. But that might have been presumptuous. So in humility, he was buried in what is now Yanaka Cemetery, where many Tokugawa relatives were buried from the Edo Period until present – but it is quite a distance from the shōgunal funerary temples. He was buried in accordance to Shintō practice, which showed respect for the emperor who was a Shintō kami. It was also in keeping with his Mito upbringing which showed deference to the lead Shintō kami, ie; the emperor. Therefore, Yoshinobu doesn’t have a kaimyō or ingō. His “conversion” to Shintō from Buddhism may have been for show, but his funerary rites were carried out in the Shintō fashion. Of all the shōguns, Yoshinobu’s is the only grave of this type.

So now that we’ve seen the most elegant Buddhist and Shintō mixed graves, what does a pure “shintō grave” look like? Well, let’s look what the graves of the Meiji emperor, the Taishō emperor and the Shōwa emperor looked like.

The Meiji Emperor's grave

The Meiji Emperor’s grave

The Taisho Emperor's grave.

The Taisho Emperor’s grave.

The Showa Emperor's grave

The Showa Emperor’s grave

Now let’s take a look at Yoshinobu’s grave.

tokugawa_yoshinobu_bosho

Tokugawa Yoshinobu’s graveyard.
There are two burial mounds visible.
One is Yoshinobu, the other is his lawful wife.Tokugawa Mikako (née Ichijo Mikako).

Yoshinobu's burial mound.

Yoshinobu’s burial mound.

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[†] Since I’ve been “translating” the posthumous names of the shōguns, for consistency’s sake I had to give Yoshinobu’s name a shot. It just so happens that his name is particularly cool. 

[i] New Funerary Content is copyrighted, btw. It will also go on  a t-shirt.

[ii] Ironically on the day I got married

[ii.1] Remember, the shogun family line had ended, this is what brought about the succession crisis that resulted in Yoshinobu’s elevation to shōgun. As shōgun, he was also head of the Tokugawa Shōgun Family. As head of his own cadet branch of the family, he and his descendants would be free from any shame attached to the old regime. (But in reality, there was no stigma attached to the family whose glorious family temples were among the finest sites in the city of Edo and Tōkyō).

[iii] And to be sure, honors were conferred upon him. Under the stupid Meiji system of peerage, he was granted the highest level rank of duke.

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