The History of Hanami


(cherry blossom viewing, but literally “looking at flowers”)

hanami in ueno park

The History of Hanami

I was recently asked to write an article about the history of hanami, which I was more than happy to investigate. 花見 hanami means “looking at flowers” but is synonymous with “cherry blossom viewing.” Although I had a broad understanding of this uniquely Japanese tradition – and one of my favorite aspects about living in Japan – I’d never really researched the subject in depth. Needless to say, going all JapanThis! on a non-history website or publication isn’t always appropriate[i], but I was super excited when they agreed to publish the stripped down, 650-word version while allowing me to publish the extended 12” remix here for you guys.

So, without further ado, here’s the history of hanami.

china plum blossom viewing
Chinese courtiers enjoying plum blossoms and crappy plum wine. Sorry, I can’t drink plum wine. It’s so nasty.

The Classical Origins of Hanami

If we take the word literally, hanami just means “looking at flowers.” It’s a Japanese word that falls into a broad category of “looking at things” words – two other famous examples might be 月見 tsukimi moon viewing and 富士見 fujimi Mt. Fuji viewing[ii].

In a world without TV or movies, bored humans always found ways to entertain themselves. And, as is the case in most cultures, while the poor were toiling in the fields, the rich built lush private gardens. In the West, this happened in the Roman Empire. In the East, this happened in Ancient China. The Chinese were particularly enamored with the fragrant plum blossoms – an equally beautiful flower, but much heartier and less vibrant than sakura cherry blossoms.

gokusui en - hanami in hiraizumi
Gokusui no En was a typical Heian Period poetry event linked to seasonal changes practiced by the Northern Fujiwara clan. This one is recreated once a year in Hiraizumi, Iwate Prefecture. It wasn’t a sakura-centric event but definitely influenced by China and was focused on seasonal events like hanami in the literal sense of “looking at flowers.”

When the imperial court was based in Nara in the 700’s, local aristocrats would read Chinese poems celebrating the transient beauty of plum blossoms. In their gardens, each flower’s location became a new venue for poetry writing events or places to engage in other artistic endeavors, such as calligraphy, flower arrangement, and painting. The most common flowers were wisteria[iii], plum blossoms, peach blossoms, and ultimately cherry blossoms which were treasured for their brief yet brilliant bloom. By the Heian Period, the term hanami had become synonymous with cherry blossom viewing specifically, and not just flower viewing in general.

toyotomi hideyoshi enjoying hanami with a gaggle of girls
Toyotomi Hideyoshi at one of his final hanami events in Kyōto before his death.

The Heian Period, as I’m sure you’re aware, essentially ended with the rise of the samurai class. Eventually, in the 1500’s, a warlord named 豊臣秀吉 Toyotomi Hideyoshi unified the country. He sought to legitimize the samurai – not just as warriors, but as protectors of aristocratic cultural practices. It’s here that we first find paintings of high ranking samurai, called 大名 daimyō, enjoying hanami – placing themselves on par with the imperial court. Hideyoshi encouraged the warriors to engage in other arts such as poetry, tea ceremony, and flower arrangement.

hanami in ueno

Hanami in the Premodern Era

Hideyoshi failed to establish a lasting dynasty, but his ideas of promoting cultural practices of the court among the samurai was a success. When Japan’s most stable warrior government was formally established in Edo in 1603 by 徳川家康 Tokugawa Ieyasu, hanami was an inherent aspect of the elite culture in peace time. But the Tokugawa Shōgunate took things a step further. They began planting cherry blossoms in Ueno, where you could visit the magnificent mausoleums of the shōguns. This vast religious complex was open to the public and would become Ueno Park in modern times. Daimyō from other parts of Japan brought the concept of public cherry blossom viewing spaces from Edo back to their respective domains, and from there the practice spread and became part of the Japanese cultural canon.

shogun harem hanami chiyoda castle edo castle tokugawa
Ladies of the shōgun’s harem enjoying hanami on the expansive grounds of Edo Castle, once the largest castle in the world – a city within a city.

This brought hanami to the commoners. Kabuki theater and entertainment in the pleasure quarters were looked down upon by the shōgunate as morally questionable, but enjoying cherry blossoms was good clean fun and people of any rank could enjoy it if they had access to the trees. Of course, some of the best groves where behind the high walls of the palaces of the feudal lords in Edo and of the shōgun’s castle in particular, but temples, shrines, and common spaces were open to all.

The shogun's harem enjoying hanami on gotenyama in Shinagawa.
One of my favorite ukiyo-e of all time, two groups of women doing hanami on Goten’yama. You can see Shinagawa below, the calm waters of Edo Bay below, and the ever present boats on premodern Japan’s busiest harbor. Looking out at the bay must have seemed like looking at the end of the world – and by that I mean the Pacific Ocean and modern Chiba Prefecture.

Furthermore, large scale planting of sakura in Edo in places like 御殿山 Goten’yama[iv], 飛鳥山 Asukayama[v], 道灌山 Dōkan’yama[vi], and other famous spots provided public spaces where anyone could enjoy the beautiful pink blossoms. Even Yoshiwara, the moated and sequestered red light district had streets lined with cherry blossoms. The tradition of 夜桜 yo-zakura, or nighttime sakura viewing, is generally thought to have origins in Yoshiwara and similar Edo Period red light districts because businesses stayed open late and used lanterns to maximum effect to make their shops seems more attractive at night, especially during the short cherry blossom season. While usually men frequented the pleasure quarters, wives and daughters often came to enjoy the illuminated trees and try to catch a glimpse of the courtesans in their flashy kimono. Anyone who has enjoyed yo-zakura knows there’s a dramatic difference between daytime hanami and nighttime hanami.

yoshiwara night hanami
Nighttime hanami in Yoshiwara. You can see the lanterns illuminating the trees. Also, notice the guy covering his head. Men of prominent positions in the community, while allowed to – and often expected to – have concubines, were discouraged by the shōgunate from going to red light districts like the Yoshiwara. They often covered their heads to avoid recognition. But, of course, they went. Because oiran!!! Who wouldn’t?!!💛

With the great Tokugawa Peace came re-branding. The samurai, traditionally warriors, now found themselves with no wars to fight – essentially functioning as bureaucrats. In order to legitimize their function in society, they were expected to be living examples of Japanese morality and behavior for all of society beneath them to admire and emulate. A proverb arose: 花は桜木、人は武士 hana wa sakuragi, hito wa bushi as for flowers, there are sakura – as for men, there are samurai. On the surface, this simply means the greatest of flowers are cherry blossoms and the greatest of men are samurai. But there’s another meaning; it’s a reference to the warrior tradition and the expectation of samurai to commit 切腹 seppuku hara kiri/ritual disembowelment for failing to live honorably. A samurai’s life may seem noble and poetic – a thing of beauty, if you will – but at any moment he may be cut down in battle or asked to give his life. Therefore, the life of a samurai was likened to the sakura. He is beautiful, but fleeting. Likewise, a strong storm or sudden frost might ruin all the cherry blossoms, ending the season early. The link between samurai and sakura persists to this day, and commonly comes up in historical movies and TV dramas.

seppuku dorks
Seppuku Fun™

After the Meiji Coup in 1868, the new government embarked on a decade’s long modernization initiative. One of the biggest changes to Japanese society was the abolition of the caste system, including the samurai. There were some in the new government who lobbied – unsuccessfully, luckily – for the removal of sakura from places associated with the Tokugawa and the samurai, such as Ueno and Edo Castle because of the strong connection between the samurai and cherry blossoms. In the end, cooler heads prevailed and as the concept of public parks was introduced, hanami was rebranded as a pan-Japanese tradition that dated back to the heyday of the imperial family during the Heian Period. In fact, to many westerners who learned about Japan through postcards and movements like Japonisme and Orientalism, Japan was often reduced to imagery of Mt. Fuji, geisha, and cherry blossoms.

Further Reading:

ueno daibutsu
The Great Buddha of Edo. It was destroyed in the 1923 Great Kantō Earfquake and had been a minor spot in Ueno Park until quite recently. Now it’s famous with Asian tourists, even though most Tōkyōites don’t even know it exists.

Modern Hanami

In the 1880’s and early 1900’s, newspapers began announcing famous spots for hanami and recommending the best times to go. The blooming of sakura coincided with the newly established school year, and companies latched on to this cycle to welcome in new hires and reinforce the commitment of existing workers’ dedication to the organization. In this way, the sakura became a symbol of birth and rebirth, rather than the fleeting existence of the samurai.

shinjuku gyoen hanami

As horticulture and the art of garden construction incorporated new scientific discoveries, public parks and botanical gardens soon learned that they could extend the hanami season by planting two to three varieties in the same park. Why only have two weeks of hanami when you can have three or four?

yoshino hanami, kyoto nara

Having a picnic and drinking sake while looking at cherry blossoms is a tradition that goes back to the Heian Period.  Until recently, you could usually only carry a bottle or two with you, so the parties were shorter. Since the 70’s and 80’s, there have been convenience stores on every corner in major cities. This has made it possible for hanami parties to run from 6 AM to 11 PM because you can just refuel at 7-11 whenever you run out of booze. Furthermore, hanami goers in parks these days can even order delivery pizza, sushi, or whatever they need. In the age of instant gratification, an old proverb came to be associated with hanami: 花より団子 hana yori dango – literally, sweets over flowers. The implication is that some people don’t come to enjoy the sakura as much as for the wild partying.

hanami salaryman ueno park
Japanese companies often send the youngest or lowest ranking people on their teams or in their departments to go stake out prime hanami spots in busy locations at the crack of dawn. Inevitably, they begin partying, often from 6 AM until the main group arrives. I came across this poor fellow at noon and it seems like… well… I guess hazing is a thing in his company.

Crazy Parties and Secret Spots

If you go to some of the larger parks in Tōkyō, like Ueno, Yoyogi, Inokashira, Meguro, etc., you’ll find a very party-like atmosphere. Ueno Park, in my experience, tends to be the craziest. People used to bring portable karaoke machine – a practice that has long since been banned – but still it’s the rowdiest and booziest. However, Yoyogi Park definitely gives it a run its money. In fact, I’ve seen DJ’s spinning house and techno in that park. Inokashira Park in Kichijōji is still all about the party, but has a much more hippied-out vibe. The Meguro River isn’t as crazy as those three, but it’s pretty noisy because it’s so congested and the sound of generator powering the food stalls forces people to raise their speaking volume just to communicate with one another.

hanami secret spots in tokyo

All of this is great fun. I love it for sure, but sometimes you just don’t want to deal with all the craziness. As such, a lot of people seek out the best kept secrets, or 穴場 anaba in Japanese (usually shared by word of mouth). This could be anything from a very local shrine to an obscure park. These places tend to have a great hanami experience without the crowds and often don’t have all the drunks shouting and laughing with each other or passing out on wherever on the ground. And while not a secret spot, some places like Shinjuku Gyoen have specific rules banning alcohol – though, that doesn’t actually stop people from bringing it in, but the people who do tend to be low key about it.

So, Edo’s big 5 hanami spots were Goten’yama, Ueno, the banks of the Sumida River, Asukayama, and Koganei. What are your favorite spots in modern Tōkyō? And do you know any cool secret spots?

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[i] There’s a little mantra you’ve probably heard: know your audience.
[ii] Both of these words made their way into architectural terminology of the Edo Period. For example, Edo Castle and Kawagoe Castle both had 富士見櫓 Fujimi Yagura Fujimi Turrets and many places in Tōkyō still bear the place name Fujimi since you could see Mt. Fuji from there, for example 中野富士見町 Nakano-Fujimichō. Tsukimi appears everything from teahouses to castles, most notably Matsumoto Castle’s 富士見櫓 Fujimi Yagura Fujimi Turret.
[iii] Wisteria, or 藤 fuji, were closely linked to the 藤原氏 Fujiwara-shi Fujiwara clan, a powerful family of the imperial court that was the ancestor of a number of powerful samurai clans which preserved the kanji for wisteria when establishing new branch families with new names
[iv] This was one of the preeminent hanami spots in the Edo Period, but sadly shōgunate destroyed the area to build defensive islands to protect Edo from the threat of a sea based invasion by western powers in the 1850’s.
[v] This is still a popular hanami spot located a short distance from Ōji Station.
[vi] There are famous ukiyo-e of this spot, but today it’s a shadow of its former glory.

23 thoughts on “The History of Hanami

  1. Between Meguro and Naka-Meguro in the afternoon on a weekday is best for me. At the end of the season, there are showers of petals and the Megurogawa becomes completely pink in many places. It is known as “hana ikada” a flower road.

    1. Yup, emphasis on the weekday afternoon party. Over the last few years, it’s gotten crazy crowded at night time and on weekends. But weekday afternoons are great, I agree!

  2. As always, a fantastic article. Although I kinda disagree with you on the ‘plum wine’ thing. I don’t think it’s necessarily ‘nasty’, but the first time I drank it I was warned ‘just so you don’t spit it out all over my carpet, it’s a little sweet’ LOL without that warning, I probably *would* have.
    Keep up the good work- your website is among my top 5, easily.

    1. lololol, yeah, well to each their own, right?
      The opinions voiced here are just my own.

      Also, thanks for the kind words! It’s an honor to be in your top 5. Easily, no less.

      Thank you very much!

  3. I meant to also say- I’m glad that you mentioned Hideyoshi, I’ve been studying him a lot lately. What a riddle that cat was! He’d kill you in a second, tell you to commit seppuku or crucify you (depending on which end of the social ladder you fell on), then a week later, regret it. Also, he came from literally *nothing*- it amazes me that a guy who came from a society like Japan’s- completely class-conscious, no ifs ands or buts- was so ambitious and driven that he ended up unifying and controlling the whole freakin’ country, not just his corner of it.
    Anyway, I hope I didn’t take up too much space- your website has become a crucial part of my studying of Japanese history.

    1. You didn’t take up too much space at all. I wish more people would comment, and I’m also glad that you find JapanThis! relevant to you studies.

      The interesting thing about Hideyoshi to me is that he was a product of a society that allowed great social mobility. In the end, he squashed out that mobility, as his policies were maintained by the Tokugawa Shōgunate which crystallized the caste system in Japan. We wouldn’t find another social climber like Hideyoshi until Kondō Isami in the final days of the Shōgunate.

      1. I definitely see your point about Hideyoshi-didn’t he have a ‘sword hunt’ after he was in power to make sure that *only* samurai had samurai swords? And even though he was able to climb from his low class beginnings (his father was Yaemon, a footsoldier that didn’t even have a last name) to being in control of the whole country, he couldn’t (and didn’t) call himself ‘Shogun’ because he wasn’t of the samurai class. So he *definitely* was a firm believer in the caste system of Japan- of the three unifiers (Oda Nobunaga, Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu) of Japan, Toyotomi Hideyoshi is easily the most interesting to me personally.
        As far as your website being among my favorites, you are welcome. You deserve it- you clearly put a sh*tload of work into it. I also want to tell you one of my favorite parts of your articles are the etymology parts- I really dig it when you break the names down to try to figure out why things are called what they are. Especially since with the Chinese characters and how they are used/pronounced in Japanese there’s a whole other level!!!

      2. If you’re interested in people like the Three Great Unifiers, please check out my friends at Samurai Archives. They spend a lot of time exploring concepts pertaining to them on their wiki, forum, and podcast. They have the wherewithal to go far deeper than I can, and they have a community to draw from. I wish I had that too lol.

        And yeah, I put a shitload of work into this blog lol. It’s literally a second full time job (with terrible pay). 😂

  4. The guy who does the podcast at covered a bit about this, that would be another great resource. (I know because I literally just listened to the podcast about it).

    1. I’ve been listening to his podcast since the beginning, but I don’t remember him covering this subject. I’ll have to go back and look for it.

      1. Hmm, I been randomly going through them honestly I think it was a bit inside the first 15 break down pod casts (I know not super helpful) I’ve been going through over the past couple days if I remember right. Either way though, very impressive bit of info. I’ve been running into quite a bit of bookmarkable websites over Golden Week (this site included of course). Did a tiny bit of history and culture studies before moving to Japan, now since I’m here I feel the drive much more then when I was in the States.

  5. My trip to Japan was canceled because of COVID. Will they have hanami again?

    I want to see all these beautiful places with CHERRY BLOSSOMS!

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